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The operation of a cement kiln critically depends upon chemical composition of the raw materials, their proper proportioning and quality of the coals used.

The package RAWMEAL is capable of scientifically analysing the possible effect of varying the raw-mix proportioning and raw materials’ chemical composition on kiln operation and clinker quality, thereby leading to optimisation of kiln operation, raw-mix cost and coal cost.  The package uses the known chemical composition of various limestones, clays, additives and coals to predict the following critical parameters:

  • Clinker phase compositions – C3S, C2S, C3 A and C4AF.

  • The ratios such as LSF, SR, AR, ASMR, Delta etc.

  • The kiln operation parameters such as the minimum burning temperature (MBT), liquid content (Liq), coating index (CI), burnability factor (BF), burnability index (BI), reactivity index (RI) etc.


The effect of magnesia and alkalies is properly accounted for in the expressions for the above parameters.  The package also accounts for the effect of coal and coal ash on kiln operation and clinker quality. 


A unique feature is the possibility of selecting any of the 24 constraints included in the package.  This is especially useful for stabilising kiln operation and improving kiln lining life wherein one can specify CI, Liq., BF and LSF as constraints to achieve proper coating, optimum liquid content, and simultaneously, proper burnability and clinker quality.  Further, coal optimisation (i.e., coal-mix design) is also integrated in RAWMEAL.


The following additional features incorporated into RAWMEAL make the package versatile and powerful:


  • Integrated cost optimisation for both raw-mix and coal-mix designs.

  • Analysis of the effect of corrective additives that may be required to stabilise kiln operation.

  • A built-in calculator to enable the user to quickly see the effect of different raw-mix designs on clinker quality and kiln operation parameters.

  •  Integrated database management for raw materials and coals.

One of the cardinal principles for stable kiln operation is not to make too frequent changes to feed rates and instead allow the kiln to stabilise at the combination of feed rates set and observe the performance.  The same then needs to be analysed by a scientific tool such as RAWMEAL before making any changes.  It is necessary to wait atleast two to three times the residence time in the kiln before making any further changes to the feed rates.

A companion software FRACO is also necessary to achieve true raw-mix optimisation.  This software is useful to analyse the heterogeneity of 'homogeneous' raw-mixes.


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  Email:  ptcsoftware@softhome.net, ptcsoftware@rediffmail.com.